Table of Contents
Kansas Fort Sources
The following article was made available through the courtesy
of Stephen Chinn. It should not be quoted or retransmitted without a full citation
to the author, and should not be put into print -- in whole or
part -- without the author's express permission.
The Kansas Heritage Server would like to thank
Richard A. Ensminger for contributing to this material.
Rich passed away 29 May 1996 at Kirkwood, Missouri.
He was 58 years old and had been with ALMSA, SIMA, and
LSSC since 1969. Rich loved to read about the old west, and this material
is archived in Rich's memory.
This listing attempts to include all installations at which
troops were stationed, ranging from the temporary camps and
detachments to the more permanent forts. The term "fort" seemed
to include many things; a fort could be a major, permanent
installation, or it could be a temporary overnight affair. A
camp could have been either, but more often the latter. This
term sometimes was applied interchangeably, depending upon Army
policy or the Congressional budget.
A "cantonment" was a semi-permanent camp before the Civil War,
but usually a temporary place after the war. Detachments and
stations usually were details of men under a sergeant or
lieutenant located to protect a mail station, telegraph or
heliograph post, or a stage line. Redoubts and batteries were
protected small fort-like dugouts, the latter from which to fire
* = Forts that were used by soldiers and civilians of
Fort Atkinson was established 8 August 1850 by Lieutenant Colonel
Edwin Vose Sumner, 1st U. S. Dragoons.
Fort Atkinson was located about 2 miles west of the present Dodge City in
Ford County, south of what is now Highway 50, on the north side of the
Arkansas River, near the site of old Fort Mann. The Caches were just
north of Fort Atkinson and north of Highway 50.
Intended to control the Indians and protect the Santa Fe Trail. This small
army post was made entirely of sod buildings. The Army soon had
another enemy beside the Indians - field mice! Lieutenant Henry
Heth, commanding officer, requisitioned a dozen cats from Fort
Leavenworth to cope with the problem. Fort Atkinson was
abandoned in 1854 due to the poor condition of the sod buildings.
Fort Aubrey was established early in September 1865 by
Captain Adolph Whitman, 48th Wisconsin Infantry. It was located
in the present Hamilton County at the head of Spring Creek about
two and one-half miles north of the Arkansas River, and about
midway between the present towns of Kendall and Syracuse, and
sixty miles east of Fort Lyon.
The site was originally recommended by Francis Xavier Aubry
(1824-1854), trader and explorer, who was killed in Santa Fe 18
August 1854, and for whom the post was named.
The post was designed to protect the mountain branch of the Santa
Fe Trail and the Aubrey Cutoff during the Indian troubles of
Fort Aubrey, intended to be temporary, was used only nine
months and abandoned on 15 April 1866, after the Indian troubles
Fort Belmont was built about 1860 in a wooded area on Sandy
Creek nearby the town of Belmont, Kansas to protect the settlers
from the Indians and the Missouri border ruffians. A military
road from Fort Leavenworth came through the site from the north,
and the army used it to bring supplies to the Indians who were
camping along the Big Sandy and its tributaries.
Fort Belmont consisted of three or four small cabins called
the officers' quarters. A few yards north of these cabins stood
the actual fort, an earth embankment with logs placed on top.
The parade ground was located a mile east of the officers'
quarters. For a short time Fort Belmont was manned when
Companies C and G of the 16th Regiment, under the commands of
Capt. Joseph Gunby, 1st Lieutenant James Watkins, and 2d
Lieutenant Robert Daniel called fort Belmont "home" for a few
These companies left the fort in October 1864, and the
Indian agency, which was no longer needed, was closed. Fort
Belmont never saw any military action during the Civil War and
closed in 1865.
In 1867 a severe smallpox epidemic in the area caused many
settlers to go elsewhere, leaving Belmont nearly deserted. The
Belmont post office stayed open for ten more years but was
finally ceased in 1877.
Fort Dodge was established April 10, 1865 by Captain Henry
Pierce, 11th Kansas Cavalry, by order of Major General Grenville
M. Dodge, commanding the department. A Colorado regiment, under Colonel James H. Ford, was camped there in 1860 before the establishment of the fort, which lay on the north bank of the Arkansas River and was in the shape of a half circle. The post was named for Major General Dodge.
The post was designed to protect the U.S. mail and emigrant wagon trains
on the Santa Fe Trail, and to serve as a base of operations against
hostile Indians. It was located on the left bank of the Arkansas River on
the "Long Route" of the Santa Fe Trail five miles east of the
present Dodge City. The site lay near the intersection of the "wet" and
"dry" routes on the Santa Fe Trail.
In 1867 Fort Dodge was relocated and rebuilt in stone buildings. In 1868
Comanches and Kiowas attacked Fort Dodge, Kansas, killing four soldiers
and wounding seventeen. Fort Dodge was abandoned October 2, 1882.
The military reservation was transferred to the Interior Department 12
January 1885. The fort was converted to the Kansas Soldiers Home in 1889,
and the original stone buildings are still in use.
1860/1861 Smoky Hill Trail; 1865 town/stage station established; located
south of WaKeeney in Trego County on Downer's Creek about 50 miles west of
Fort Hays; name derived from Downer's Creek, which was named for James P.
Downer (never a major), a Civil War veteran and member of a party that
surveyed the Smoky Hill Trail route. 1866 Indians massacred residents; 30
May 1867 fortified to protect the stage route and served as a military
post called Fort Downer; 1867 Indians burned fort; 1867 it was also used
by Lieutenant Colonel George A. Custer, 7th U. S. Cavalry, during his
operations against Indians; 28 May 1868 fort abandoned;
The original post (Fort Harker #1) was established August 1864 by troops
of the 7th Iowa Cavalry, under the command of 2nd Lieutenant Allen
Ellsworth, by order of Major General Samuel R. Curtis, commanding the
department to protect the more remote frontier settlements. Originally
called Fort Ellsworth, for Lt. Ellsworth. Originally located on the left
bank of the Smoky Hill River at the point where the Santa Fe stage route
crossed the river, about 3-4 miles southeast of the present town of
It was designated as Fort Harker 11 November 1866 for Brigadier General
Charles G. Harker, killed on 27 June 1864 in the Battle of Kenesaw
In January 1867, the post was moved one mile northeast of Fort Harker #1
to the site of the present town of Kanopolis, Ellsworth County.
The post was used as a base for the distribution of supplies to posts
farther west and for operations against hostile Indians in 1868-69. In
September of 1868, Colonel George A. Forsyth, on orders from General Phil
Sheridan, departmental commander, recruited a mounted company of fifty
experienced Kansas frontiersmen to pursue a reportedly "small band" of
Indians camped near the western Kansas border.
By nightfall of September 16, Forsyth and his command were on Arickaree
Creek (Republican tributary) five miles due west of Kansas's northwest
corner. The next morning they were surrounded by nearly a thousand
Cheyenne, Arapaho, and Sioux Indians. They retreated to an "island," a
shrub-covered sandbar one hundred and twenty-five yards long and fifty
yards wide, in the Arickaree and dug in. In early November 1868, the U.S.
Army officially named it the Battle of Beecher's Island in honor of
Later, Fort Harker served to protect the construction crews of the Kansas
Pacific Railway. The usefulness of the post ended when the railroad
reached Denver, and it was abandoned in 1873. The military reservation was
transferred to the Interior Department on 12 July 1880.
Fort Fletcher was established 11 October 1865 as a frontier
military post to protect military roads, defend construction
gangs on the Union Pacific Railroad, and guard the U.S. mail.
The post was first designated Fort Fletcher, in honor of Governor
Thomas C. Fletcher of Missouri.
On January 14, 1866, Lieutenant Bell and twenty men of the
13th Missouri Cavalry were sent to Fort Fletcher for supplies.
On 11 November 1866, the name was changed to Fort Hays, for
Brigadier General Alexander Hays, killed 5 May 1864 in the Battle
of the Wilderness.
By late spring of 1869, the Seventh Cavalry, including
Captain Keogh and his horse, Comanche, were stationed at Fort
Fort Hays was abandoned in November 1889 after the Indian Wars had
ended. The military reservation was transferred to the Interior
Department 6 November 1889, and to the state by a Congressional act 28
The original stone blockhouse, guardhouse and officers' quarters have
been renovated. Displays through the historic site illustrate pioneer and
military history. Part of the site is now the campus of Fort Hays State
Camp on Pawnee Fork
"Camp on Pawnee Fork" and Camp Alert, as Fort Larned was first
known, was established 22 October 1859 as a military post to
protect travelers and commerce and mail on the Santa Fe Trail
from Indians. It also provided a more centralized point for the
distribution of annuities, as provided by treaty, to the Indians.
The original structure was built of sod in the heart of Indian
hunting grounds in Kansas territory. 1860 Fort Larned was
relocated 2 1/2 miles west.
1861-1868 Fort Larned was the site of an Indian Agency, an
attempted peaceful administration of the Southern Plains Indians
by the Indian Bureau.
1862 - Until reinforced by Colorado and Kansas Volunteers, the
small garrisons at Fort Larned were unable to prevent many
attacks on caravans by the Kiowas, Apaches, and Arapahos.
1865 - Fort Larned was rebuilt with sandstone blocks. The Fort
had officers quarters, barracks, a hospital, and stables. The
blockhouse was built first, and all construction was completed by
Fort Larned was a key post during the Indian Wars of the late
By 1878 the Indians had been moved to various reservations, and
the communities of Larned, La Crosse and Kinsley sprang forth to
serve the farmers who settled on the rich soil in the area.
Fort Larned was deactivated by the Army June 1878 and was
abandoned 19 July 1878.
Fort Leavenworth, first known as Cantonment Leavenworth, was
established by Henry Leavenworth on the Missouri River's right
bank of Salt Creek 8 May 1827 to protect the western frontier and
travelers on the Santa Fe Trail.
The post was evacuated in May 1829 and occupied by Kickapoo
Indians until it was regarrisoned in the Fall of 1829. The name
of the post was changed to Fort Leavenworth 8 February 1832.
1835 Dodge's expedition, on a summer tour, traveled from the
South Platte down to the upper Arkansas by a route along the base
of the Rockies, then followed down river past Bent's Fort to the
Santa Fe Trail junction on the march back to Fort Leavenworth.
1845 Kearnys expedition journeyed from Fort Laramie southward to
the South Platte, and then along the base of the Rockies to the
upper Arkansas, followed it downstream, past Bent's Fort to the
Santa Fe Trail en route back to Fort Leavenworth.
Fort Leavenworth had a vital role in the protection of Union
interests in Kansas and western Missouri at the beginning of the
Civil War, and was an attractive target throughout the war
because of its arsenal. During the war Camp Lincoln was
established on the military reservation of Fort Leavenworth to
muster the volunteers coming into federal service.
7th Kansas Cavalry (Jennison's Jayhawkers) mustered in at Fort
Leavenworth on August 31, 1861 (they were at Fort Leavenworth
until about October 31, 1861). The unit had a terrible reputation
at this time - lots of looting and murderous raids into Missouri.
Captured and Exchanged at the battle of Little Blue (near KC)
around November 11, 1861. Granted Furlough at Memphis, Tennessee
on January 22, 1864. Mustered out at Fort Leavenworth on
September 29, 1865.
Fort Leavenworth is the oldest permanent United States military
post west of the Missouri River. The post is still operative as
the 35th Infantry Division is stationed there.
1863 established by James H. Lane;
located 12 m. south of Fort Scott, Bourbon County;
used primarily to house Confederate prisoners;
1864 abandonded and relocated;
part of border defense system of Fort Scott during Civil War;
protect Kansas residents against attacks from Confederate forces;
name changed to Osaga and then replaced by Fulton.
Fort Mann was established in 1845 by Captain Daniel P. Mann.
Fort Mann was located about 8? or .8? miles
west of the present Dodge City in Ford County,
on the north bank of the Arkansas River,
near (east of) the site of old Fort Atkinson and the Caches.
It was 25 miles below (east of) the
Cimarron Crossing of the Santa Fe Trail.
Established because the government needed a post about
equidistant from Fort Leavenworth and Santa Fe for the repair of
wagons and replacement of animals. Built by Captain Daniel P.
Mann, master teamster, for whom the post was named, and a corps
of forty teamsters, by order of Captain William D. McKissack,
Although this was not a regular military post, it was defensible
and was occupied from time to time. The ten soldiers there could
scarcely defend themselves, let alone passing caravans. During
the year, Commander Lieutenant Gilpin counted 3,000 wagons,
12,000 people, and 150,000 head of stock that passed the Fort.
The Comanches and Kiowa Indians killed forty-seven of these
Americans and stole 6,500 head of stock.
Fort Mann was repaired and enlarged in 1848. Fort Mann was
abandoned in 1850 when Fort Atkinson was established.
1860/1861 Smoky Hill Trail;
originally a station on the stage and mail route;
Fort Monument established Nov. 1865;
located in Gove County, between Fort Hays and Fort Wallace,
near some monument-shaped rocks that gave the post its name;
The post was also referred to as Fort Pyramid, but in official
documents it is designated Monument Station;
a detachment of troops were sent there by order of Major General
Grenville M. Dodge to protect the station from Indian depredations;
1867/1870 K.P. R.R.;
June 1868 garrison was withdrawn;
Fort Riley is located on the north bank of the Kansas River three
miles from Junction City at the junction of the Republican and
Smoky Hill Rivers. It was located between the Oregon and Santa
Fe trails to provide protection for travelers on overland routes.
Fort Riley soon became a supply depot for the western Army forts.
Fort Riley, established in 1852 as Camp Center, because of its
proximity to the geographical center of the United States. Fort
Riley was established 17 May 1853 in Kansas Territory by Captain
Charles S. Lovell, 6th U.S. Infantry, on a site recommended by
Colonel Thomas T. Flauntleroy, 1st U. S. Dragoons.
On 27 June 1853, it was designated Fort Riley, in honor of
Colonel Bennett Riley, 1st U.S. Infantry, who died on 9 June
1853. Construction of the permanent cavalry post was commenced
in 1855 under the direction of Captain Edmund A. Ogden, 8th U.
S. Infantry. The first Territorial Capitol of Kansas was built
of native stone July 1855 at Pawnee on the reservation.
After the Civil War, troops from Fort Riley were needed to
protect workers constructing the Kansas Pacific Railroad from the
Wild Bill Hickok was a scout for Fort Riley starting in 1867.
Fort Riley became known as the "Cradle of Cavalry." The Cavalry
came to the fort in 1884. The infamous 7th Cavalry was here, and
the 1st Infantry Division, known as the "Big Red One," is here.
This division participated in Operation Desert Shield (Dec. 1990)
and Storm (Jan. 1991) in Saudi Arabia, "The Land of Sand." The
post is still operative.
Point of Southeastern Kansas
Fort Scott, named in honor of General Winfield Scott, was
established 30 May 1842 at Marmaton crossing of the Fort
Leavenworth-Fort Gibson military road.
It was among nine forts originally planned to line the area
between the Great Lakes and New Orleans to separate proposed
Indian lands and white settlements.
Normal daily activities included the general construction of the
fort and drill by the Dragoons (horse soldiers). On occasion map
making expeditions were made.
The post was virtually abandoned in April 1853, when the garrison
was transferred to Fort Riley and other western posts. The
buildings were sold at public auction 16 May 1855. The
Government did not own the land.
After the outbreak of the Civil War, Fort Scott was reactivated
29 March 1862 and again assumed importance as a military outpost.
Fort Scott was abandoned in 1865.
Camp on Pond Creek
1860/1861 Smoky Hill Trail;
1865 establised to protect settlers against the Indians;
western most frontier post in Kansas;
located on the south fork of the Smoky Hill River in Wallace County;
1870 K.P. R.R.;
Fort Zarah was established September 6, 1864 on the banks of
Walnut Creek near the crossroads of the Santa Fe Trail, the army
supply route from Fort Riley, and the main Indian trail. In 1867
Fort Zarah was relocated in stone buildings two miles downstream
near the Arkansas River. Fort Zarah was abandoned December 4,
1869 as the Indian problem moved southwestward.
FORT LOCATION ACTIVE YEARS
* Bain, Ft. Bourbon County 1857-58
Bateman, Camp Sub-post to 1857-58
Fort Baxter Baxter Springs 1863
Beecher, Camp 1 mi. from Wichita 1868-69
Big Creek, On Butterfield route c. 1865
* Bissell, Ft. Near Phillipsburg 1872-78
Blair, Ft. Ft. Scott Blockhouse c. 1861
Blair, Ft. Near Baxter's Springs c. 1863 The Kansas Heritage Server
would like to thank Earleene Spaulding for contributing this information
on Ft. Blair Thu, 17 Sep 1998. Earleene Spaulding is the recording
historian for the Baxter Springs Heritage Center and Museum, P.O. Box 514,
Baxter Springs, Kansas 66713.
Fort Blair -site of quantrills massacre in oct 6, 1863 located baxter
springs-ks. was a log and earthworks fort- being reconstructed by baxter
springs heritage center and museum-national civil war cementary located
here 3rd wisconsin calvary under lt james pond-general blunt's band
massacred by quantrill here one of the first colored troops in battle of
Fort Brooks--established August or September 1864. Located on the
north bank of the Republican River in the present Cloud County.
It was built by the Shirley (now Cloud) County Militia. The post,
a log blockhouse, served as headquarters for defense against
Caldwell, Camp Caldwell 1884-85
Carlisle Stage 35 mi. SE Grinnell c. 1865
Station, Detachment at
Castle Rock 1 mi. E. Castle Rock c. 1865
Creek Stage Station, Detachment at
Fort Cavagnial Kansas City 1744/45-60
This fort was in existence before the United States made the
Louisiana Purchase. Established in 1744 or 1745. It was located
below the mouth of the Kansas River, possibly on the site of
present Kansas City, Kansas. Built by Joseph Deruisseau, who, on
August 8, 1744, was granted a monopoly to trade with the Indians
along the Missouri River. The post was connected with the French
plans to open trade with Santa Fe. It consisted of a circular
palisade, enclosing a few cabins. In 1758, it was garrisoned by
one officer and even or eight soldiers. The French and Indian
War seriously affected the Indian trade and the post was
abandoned before 1760.
Chalk Bluffs Stage S. of Gove c. 1865
Station, Detachment at
Cimarron Redoubt 12 mi. S. Ashland 1873
Fort Clinton was a "cavalry post" or "old blockhouse" located
near the Clinton community, circa 1840-1850. Source: Martha
Parker at the Clinton Lake Historical Museum.
Cow Creek crossing
1865 - A small military post established near the Cow Creek
crossing with barracks and a blacksmith shop.
Crossing of the 1864
Arkansas, Station at
Fort Defiance - Douglas County
Fort Defiance was in southern or southwestern Douglas County near
Twin Mounds or Globe, circa 1855-1861.
Grinnell Springs Gove County c. 1865
Stage Station, Detachment at
Henning. Ft. Ft. Scott Blockhouse c. 1861
Henshaw Station - Logan County
Detachment at Henshaw Station
Henshaw Station, a military post founded about 1865 shortly
after the Civil War, was located near McAllaster about nine miles
east of Fort Wallace on Turkey Creek, not the best place for a
small command post because of the frequent Indian attacks in the
area. The first recorded attack there was on June 5, 1867, when
the Indians killed four men and stampeded the horses. At the
time the station was guarded by only ten soldiers and two stock
traders, so pursuit of the Indians was out of the question. By
the time a force arrived from Fort Wallace, the Indians had
Hoffman, Camp 1867-68
Humboldt, Ft. no date
Insley, Ft. Ft. Scott Blockhouse 1861
Fort Jewell (1870-1870)
It was built on 13 and 14 May 1870 at the town of Jewell in north
central Kansas. The post was built by the home guard, William D.
Street, captain, because of a rumor that the Cheyenne Indians
were on the war-path. It consisted of a sod enclosure fifty
yards square with walls four feet thick and seven feet high. A
militia company organized by all of the settlers along Buffalo
Creek garrisoned the post. The settlers remained in it until 28
June 1870, by which time the Indian scare had abated. Then a
company of the 3rd U. S. Artillery took over and remained in the
fort until fall.
Kickapoo, Camp at 1858
Fort Kirwin (1865-1865)
Fort Kirwin was established 10 July 1865. It was located near
the confluence of Bow Creek and the North Solomon River in the
present Phillips County 1.5 miles south of Kirwin. Established by
Lt. Colonel John S. Kirwin, 12th Tennessee Cavalry, and a company
of Tennessee volunteers who were sent as an escort for a survey
party and to scout the country for hostile Indians. The post was
a summer encampment only, not a fort. Abandoned 3 September
Fort Lane was established in 1856. It played a role at the time
of Quantrill's raid. The fort was abandoned in 1857. The ruins
of Fort Lane were located on the east side of Mt. Oread, which is
now occupied by Kansas University, about where Spooner Hall is on
the northeast corner at 14th and Jayhawk Blvd. in West Lawrence,
Douglas County, Kansas.
Fort Lecompton was a proslavery military post active during the
"Bleeding Kansas" era.
Leedy, Camp Topeka c. 1898
Lookout, Ft. 15 mi. W. Ft. Hays 1866-68
Lower Cimarron Near Ashland 1864-73
Springs, Detachment at
A redoubt supervised by Lt. Richard T. Jacobs, built by two
companies in 1864 to protect the crossing midway between Fort
Dodge, Kansas, and Fort Supply, Oklahoma. See also North Redoubt,
and Cimarron Redoubt.
Fort Mackay (1850-1851)
Magruder, Camp Near Ft. Leavenworth 1860
Martin, Cantonment - Cow Island in Missouri River 1818-20;
Marysville, Camp at Marysville 1857
Miami Valley Miami Valley c. 1861
Montgomery, Ft. Eureka 1865-68
Fort Montgomery was built in or near Eureka, in central
Greenwood County, in 1860 or 1861. It was named for James
Montgomery, a free-state leader. It was built by the local
citizens to protect themselves from attacks by Osage Indians and
Monument Springs, post at
North Redoubt Vicinity of Ashland 1873
See Upper and Lower Cimarron Springs Station, and Cimarron
Ogallah, Camp 1 mi. W. Wakeeny c. 1867
Fort Osage was established in 1808 on the Missouri River east of
Independence, Missouri. The Santa Fe Trail passed Fort Osage.
Fort Osage was abandonded in 1827.
Fort Osborne Osborne County c. 1878
Prairie Dog Creek, 1859
Roach, Ft. S. Border Neosho Co. n.d.
Fort Saunders - Douglas County
Fort Saunders was a fortified proslavery camp at Franklin 12
miles southwest of Lawrence, Douglas County, Kansas.
On August 12, 1856 D. S.
Hoyt of Lawrence Douglas County, Kansas went there to speak with the
commander, Colonel B. F. Treadwell, about the pillaging and plundering
around Franklin. As Hoyt left the camp, he was murdered. That evening
twenty-five equestrians and fifty-six infantrymen left Lawrence,
Douglas County, Kansas in an attempt to break up the proslavery
headquarters at Franklin and retake the cannon, "Old Sacramento."
Russell Springs Near Russell Springs c. 1865
Stage Station, Detachment at
Shawnee Mission Shawnee Mission 1857
Simple, Ft. Topeka 1863-66
Solomon, Ft. at Solomon 1864-65
Smoky Hill 20 mi. SW. Oakley c. 1865
Stage Station, Detachment at
Fort Sully was built in 1864 during the Civil War to protect Fort
Leavenworth and its vital arsenal in the heights overlooking the
main fort. It was a redoubt at Fort Leavenworth.
Thompson, Camp Near Ft. Leavenworth 1858
Fort Titus - Douglas County
Fort Titus was the Colonel Titus cabin located one and 1/2
miles south of Lecompton. In August 1856 free-state settlers
decided to destroy Titus's cabin and to burn Lecompton. Word
reached Lecompton, and a force of thirteen proslavery men was
sent out to delay the attackers. When they encountered 200 free-
state men, they took refuge in Titus's cabin.
The free-state settlers attacked the cabin with the cannon
"Old Sacramento," using balls made from newspaper type that had
been thrown into the river at Lawrence, Douglas County, Kansas.
The proslavery men soon ran out of ammunition and surrendered,
and the cabin was burned
to the ground, but not before it had served its purpose. The
delay had given the men in Lecompton enough time to strengthen
their defenses. When the free-staters arrived, they found
themselves staring down the barrels of several hundred guns held
by the townspeople. They hurriedly retreated. Lecompton had
been saved, and Titus's cabin was known after that as Fort Titus.
Topeka, Point at Topeka 1857; 1883
Trading Post: Linn County
By 1834 an area near the Marais des Cygnes River was occupied by
two fur traders with the Northwestern Fur Company, Michel Giraud
and Philip Chouteau, who had established a profitable business
trading furs with the local Indian tribes at the Chouteau Trading
Post. In 1842 General Winfield Scott built a log fort near the
trading post to house a company of dragoons, and the fort was in
service until after the Civil War. That same year Michel Giraud
opened a store he called Trading Post in which he kept a small
stock of goods to trade with the Osage Indians in the area.
Upper Cimarron Near Ashland 1864-73
Springs, Station at
A redoubt built to protect the Cimarron Crossing midway between
Fort Dodge, Kansas, and Fort Supply, Oklahoma. Construction in
1864 by two companies commanded by Lt. Richard T. Jacobs.
Wakarusa, Ft. 5 mi. SE Lawrence, Douglas County c. 1857
The Beginning of the West -
Annals of the Kansas Gateway to the American West (1540-1854).
Topeka: Kansas State Historical Society. 1972.
Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 78-172252
Dary, David. True Tales of Old-Time Kansas. University
Press of Kansas. 1984
Davis, Kenneth S. Kansas - A History. New York: W. W. Norton
and Company. 1984
Fitzgerald, Daniel. Ghost Towns of Kansas -- A Traveler's Guide.
University Press of Kansas. 1988
Frazer, Robert W. Forts of the West. University of Oklahoma
Press. 1965. Information provided by "Richard A. Ensminger"
The Garvey Foundation. Historical Album of Kansas.
The Garvey Foundation: Wichita, Kansas. 1961
Hart, Herbert M. Old Forts of the Southwest.
Information provided by "Richard A. Ensminger"
Martin, Gene and Mary.
Trail Dust - A Quick Picture History of the Santa Fe Trail.
Boulder: Johnson Publishing Company. 1972
Midwest Research Institute. Capper/MRI Quick-Fact Book of
Kansas. Capper Press: Topeka, Kansas. 1990
Pollard, William C. "Kansas Forts During the Civil War."
Rydjord, John. Kansas Place-Names. Norman: University of Oklahoma
Socolofsky, Homer E. and Self, Huber. Historical Atlas of
Kansas. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. 1988
Authors: Stephen Chinn and Richard A. Ensminger
Site created 11 Oct 1993
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